Chhardi (vomiting), is a common gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by bouts of vomiting, nausea, pain in abdomen.
The causative factors of chhardi can be classified under dietary, lifestyle and psychological factors.
Dietary factors may include
Excessive upavasa (starvation), excessive intake of vidahi or snigdha, oily ,guru dravya or ahara .
Lifestyle factors include
Excessive exercise, divasvapna (day sleep), etc.
Excess worries, grief, anger, fear can also play role in causing vomiting.
Pathogenesis of chhardi
Amashaya (stomach) and rasayani (channels) are the main sites of accumulation of doshas and origin of chhardi. When all the dosha vitiate by nidan sevan then the Vitiated dosha accumulate in amashaya and are expelled out from the upper part of body causing pain.
Purvaroopa of chhardi
तासां हृदुत्क्लेशकफप्रसेकौ द्वेषोऽशने चैव हि पूर्वरूपम्||
- Hrudaya utklesha – Nausea with feeling of uneasiness in the cardiac region
- Kapha praseka – Excessive Salivation and
- Ashana dvesha – Anorexia or don’t want to take food
Classification of chhardi
दोषैः पृथक्त्रिप्रभवाश्चतस्रो द्बिष्टार्थयोगादपि पञ्चमी स्यात्|
There are 5 types of chhardi-
- Vatika Chardi – caused by Vata dosha
- Paittika Chardi – caused by Pitta dosha
- Kaphaja Chardi – caused by Kapha dosha
- Sannipatika chardi – caused by vitiation of all Doshas
- Dvishtartha sanyogaja Chardi – caused due to unwanted objects .
Vatika Chhardi is mainly caused by taking excessive, ruksha, tikshna (sharply acting) , less in quantity food. and indulging in grief, fear, fasting, etc.due to which vitiation of vata dosha occur and cause chhardi.
Signs and symptoms may involve:
- Pain in the cardiac region and flanks;
- Dryness of the mouth;
- Pain in umbilical region;
- Cough, hoarseness of voice
- The urge for vomiting is forceful, but patient vomits only in small quantities with pain;
- The patient feels discomfort
Pittja Chardi caused by taking excessive amal ,lavan ,pungent, sour, vidahi (which cause burning sensation) due to which ,the pitta in the stomach gets aggravated.
The signs and symptoms may involve
- Excessive thirst and dryness mouth;
- Burning sensation in the throat , palate and eyes;
- Darkness in front of eyes
Intake of excessive heavy , snigdha food will cause vitiation of kapha dosha which leads to kaphja chhardi. Signs and symptoms may involve
- Excessive salivation;
- Sense of sleep and heaviness;
Tridoshaja Chhardi is caused by taking tridosha prakopka ahara.
Signs and symptoms may involve
- Colic pain, indigestion, anorexia, burning sensation, morbid thirst, dyspnea and fainting spells that are severe and persistent;
- Vomitus is salty, sour, blue, dense, hot and reddish
This type of chhardi occur by the factors that affect mentally. These factors may involve factor like taking, unclean, putrid, unholy and loathsome odors, diet or sights,or taking unlikely and hateful diet.
Principle of treatment
आमाशयोत्क्लेशभवा हि सर्वाश्छर्द्यो मता लङ्घनमेव तस्मात्|
प्राक्कारयेन्मारुतजां विमुच्य संशोधनं वा कफपित्तहारि||२०||
As in Chhardi dosha accumulation is in the stomach, so langhan chikitsa is the the first line of treatment in chhardi . When doshas are utklishtha stage,. Vamana is recommended and kapha pitta nashak chikitsa should be done .
- Langhana therapy – This is done in all type except Vatika chardi (Because the Doshas are vitiated by the agitation of Doshas in the stomach)
- Samshodhana Chikitsa – Kapha and Pitta chardi (When the Doshas are aggravated in excess)
- Medications used- Powder of Abhaya – Terminalia chebula along with honey , can be taken for the purpose of purgation. Such other purgative drugs which act as cardiotonics may also be given appropriately along with alcohol or milk. These medications cause downward movement of the vitiated Doshas having the tendency to move upwards. In such patients Vamana therapy may also be given with the madanPhala etc. But If the patient is weak, then Samshodhana Chikitsa is avoided and patient is treated with Shamana chikitsa and medicines and dietary modifications should be done . Light and easy to digest food should be taken for eating .
Other remedies used in Chhardi
- Vegetable soup made up of of Kola, Kulattha, Dhanya, Bilva , Shyonaka , Gambhari, Patola should be taken
- Ghee with rock-salt is taken when associated with the palpitation of the heart.
- Ghee should be taken after cooked with Dhanyaka (Coriandrum sativum) , Nagara (Zingiber) , Yogurt and the juice of Dadima – Pomegranate – (Punica granatum) .
- Ghee after mixing with the powder of Sunthi , Maricha – Black pepper fruit – piper nigrum and Saindhava, Sauvarchala and Vida salt
- Soup of boiled shali rice along with mugda yusha should be taken.
- Butter-milk should be taken after by adding Sunthi (Zingiber officinalis) fruit ( Piper longum), and Maricha- Black pepper fruit (piper nigrum).
- Butter- milk can also be taken after cooked by adding Neem (Azadirachta indica)
- Soup of sour fruits along with medicated herbs can also be taken.
- Herbal tea made up of ginger , cloves should be taken.
- Old honey and alcohol prepared from sugar cane and Arishta should be taken.
- Decoction prepared from Draksha , Kapittha ( and Phala- Puraka (bija-Puraka)
- Eatables like soup made up of vegetables , meat, sour fruits should be taken.
- Mano anukula ahara and vihara – The patient is made to hear pleasing talks .Well prepared food that is liked by patient should be given to patient . Vegetables, eatables, syrups, Shadavas (Pickles), raga (condiments) and Lehas should be given to patient .
Dr. Vaidya Karanvir Singh is the younger Vaidya in Chandigarh Ayurved & Panchakarma Centre. He is the fourth generation in his family who is practicing as a general consultant in Ayurved & Panchakarma treatment at Chandigarh. In his practice, he had treated more than 1 Lakh Plus patients worldwide.